Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy and Economic Growth Nexus on CO2 Emission: Evidence from MINT Countries


Abner Ishaku Prince, Inim Victor Edet,  Boniface L. Akpan, Emmanuel Samuel Udo, Ekaetor Enobong Akpan

DOI10.5110/77. 1091               Page:   253-273            Vol: 18    Issue: 10   Year: 2023

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This study scrutinises the energy efficiency (EEF), renewable energy (REN), and economic growth (GDP) nexus on CO2 emissions in the MINT countries of Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Turkiye from 1990-2022. Using the novel asymmetric technique of the non-linear panel ARDL on the nexus between the EEF as CO2 emission stimulator, with REN, GDP, nuclear energy (NUE), and urbanization (URB), which previous studies ignored to use the symmetric model predominantly. Despite the importance of EEF in ecological policy formulation and management, its mitigating influence on CO2 emissions is yet to be expansively examined in the ecological literatures in MINT countries. Results and findings revealed an asymmetric long-short nexus between EEF, REN, through green energy sources, reducing the CO2 emission effect in MINT countries. The GDP-CO2 emission nexus supports the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. The nuclear energy-CO2 emission nexus is negative and non-significant. Indicating that MINT countries at present are not generating significant mega electron volts of nuclear energy to reduce CO2 emissions. The study recommends prioritising REN policies through EEF, advancement in energy technology, and easing of the legal requirements for EEF, particularly NUE technology adoption, and implementation, to achieve the 2030 UN SDGs of environmental quality sustainability.


Energy efficiency, renewable energy, MINT countries, Asymmetric panel ARDL, CO2 emission.

Received: 26 November 2023

Accepted: 19 December 2023

Published: 30 December 2023